Unix commands

UNIX Directory Commands

Command What It Does
ls Lists the names of the files in the working directory. For more
complete information, use ls –alF (.
cd directoryname Changes the working directory to the one you named.
cd .. Brings you up one directory level.
cd Returns you to your home directory.
pwd Displays the pathname of the current directory.
mkdir newdirectoryname Makes a new directory.
rmdir directoryname Removes (deletes) an empty directory.

Working with Files

Command What It Does
cp filename1 filename2 Copies a file.
chmod Changes permissions for access to a file. Study the man page
before using this one.
diff Compares two files line by line (assumes text).
more filename Displays a text file one page at a time. Press the spacebar to
see the next page; press Q to quit. The man command works through
more.
mv filename1 filename2 Moves a file or changes its name.
rm filename Removes (deletes) a file.

Miscellaneous Commands

Command What It Does
Control+C Terminates most operations.
date Displays the current date and time.
echo Repeats whatever appears after the command (after
expansion).
help Displays a partial list of bash commands.
history Displays the last commands you typed. You can redo a command by
typing an exclamation point (!) followed immediately (no space) by
the number of that command in the history list. To repeat the last
command, type !!. To repeat the last filename, type
!*.
pico A simple UNIX text editor.
ps Displays a list of running processes.
sudo Lets you carry out commands for which the account you are using
lacks authority. You will be asked for an administrator’s
password.
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